METHODOLOGY image analysis, facial mapping, image enhancement, facial comparison, body mapping, bodymapping, body comparison, person identification, face identification, clothing identification, clothing comparison, vehicle identification, vehicle registration mark identification, cctv enhancement, video enhancement, image enhancement, image enlargement, photograph enhancement, photo enlargement, audio analysis, audio enhancement, forensic expert reports, court attendance, specialist expert in UK England United Kingdom u.k.

Imagery Analysis

Imagery Analysis considers images contained on film [in the case of traditional photography and print generated images], magnetic tape [in the case of analogue video such as VHS and some digitally recorded images], computer hard drives and /or optical disks such as CD / DVD / Compact Disk [in the case of some digitally recorded images].  Therefore images contained in or on many types of media, be it traditional photography, television or digital techniques using computers are able to be analysed.

According To:  The Home Office Science Development Branch

What is facial mapping?

Facial mapping (or facial comparison) is viewing two or more images and determining whether they contain the same person. It is a highly subjective process whereby court recognized experts attempt to prove or disprove identities within a scale of confidence. Other detracting factors include the person’s position, poor lighting and low image quality. As these factors are inherent within CCTV systems the results from facial mapping are often low in confidence or inconclusive.

What constitutes master evidence for digital CCTV?

While the original recording such as the system’s hard disk drives may be seized as master evidence, it is more usual for the original image files to be copied to WORM (Write Once Read Many) media such as non-rewriteable CDs or DVDs. It is from these that working copies can be created.

Is digital CCTV better than analogue?

It could be, but rarely is.

* The main potential advantages of digital video are:

* Higher image quality;

* Easy export and duplication of video data;

* Addition of detailed metadata (e.g. time, date camera label etc.);

* More convenient storage options.

However the reality is that:

* Image quality is often low due to poor data compression methods.

* Processes for exporting video data are complicated and generally specific to each manufacturer.

* Metadata use is unstructured and varies between manufacturers.

* Systems are often set to maximise storage which reduces the quality of stored video data.

As with analogue systems, digital CCTV systems need to be correctly specified, installed and properly maintained to gain the maximum benefit.

I have poor quality CCTV.  How can image enhancement help?

Image enhancement can uncover information within the image that is not initially evident. Unfortunately CCTV images generally have low information content so any improvement is only marginal at best.

However the following simple enhancement techniques could be beneficial.

* Adjusting the brightness and contrast levels

* Applying sharpening or edge enhancing filters

* Increasing the colour saturation

* Removing noise

More sophisticated image enhancement systems are available, but again their effect is limited on low quality images.

How readily is digital video evidence accepted in court?

Video recordings are admissible as evidence and the digital storage of these has not altered this. It is of course the courts’ decision whether to accept or decline any evidence, though digital video evidence is routinely accepted in court. It is important to maintain an audit trail while any video evidence is in police custody.

CCTV and imaging Video evidence analysis

From street robberies to acts of terrorism, the vast number of CCTV cameras operating within the UK play an active role in crime investigations.

During major investigations, police forces often need to process hundreds of hours of video recordings. We are developing technology to improve the speed and efficiency for managing these recordings. We also provide procedures on the best methods for retrieving video from the multitude of digital CCTV systems that now exist on the market.


How CCTV can be used in a variety of different scenarios and the guidance offered by HOSDB to ensure that systems meet operators' needs.

Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) is used for a variety of purposes by many types of organisation. Some government departments use it in guarding perimeters and national borders, most small businesses use it to protect their premises and goods and local authorities and police forces mainly use it for public safety.

Video based detection systems

Video based detection systems (VBDS), are intelligent detection systems which provide automated surveillance through real-time video analysis and event detection.

Video-based detection systems are required to detect defined alarm events in each scenario with minimal false alarms. An alarm event may be, for example, the presence of a parked vehicle in a certain zone, or a bag abandoned by its owner. 

VBDS tend to struggle with changing environmental conditions, particularly when used for outdoor applications.These variations often cause systems to generate a high number of false alarms, reducing their effectiveness.

© The Home Office Science Development Branch

A range of traditional analogue techniques, such as is obtained from the employment of equipment that generates freeze frames and slow motion from the imagery exhibit, creates more easily definable results which may then be analysed in greater detail.  A range of new technological techniques, including digitisation, enlargement, enhancement and titling provides the facility to optimise an image and /or range of images and is able to produce a clarity of imagery exhibit which is often not able to be viewed via alternative methods.  Whilst working in the digitised video format, we frequently generate video at up to approximately thirty frames per second, which, when coupled with techniques such as interpolation, often reveal detail that could otherwise be overlooked and /or misconstrued.  These techniques therefore apply strongly to security CCTV video, RTA CCTV video, digital, world wide web and internet imagery.  A range of illustrative hard copy prints, in full colour where applicable, is frequently generated and form an evidential section of the Report.  Our techniques normally allow for multiple copies of the relevant hard copy prints to be made available including for the ease of distribution to Jury members and Court officials, if required.


Facial Mapping and face comparison.  Imagery Analysis including analysis of security CCTV video, RTA CCTV video, still imagery and audio. ABH, GBH and Section 18.  Chronology, Comparative Analysis and Photogrammetry. Crime scene video surveillance. Expert witness Report preparation and presentation.  Court attendance is normally available by prior arrangement.

Our expertise includes:-

1] Chronology: "the provision of a Report covering the evolution of an incident along a predetermined time line"

2] Comparative Analysis: "the provision of a Report covering the comparison of a specific object or person which/who appears in one set of images with a specific object or person which/who appears in another set of images and considering the likelihood or otherwise of the object or person being the same"

3] Photogrammetry: "the determining of dimensional data from imagery as accurately as possible which is then able to be compared with actual physical dimensions obtained from on site measurement"

    A variety of specialised tests and procedures creates more easily definable results which may then be analysed in greater detail. Including digitisation, enlargement and enhancement, this allows the optimisation of an image and a clarity of exhibit which is frequently not able to be viewed via alternative methods.  ' This often reveals detail that could otherwise be overlooked and /or misconstrued '

    Facial mapping

    Huge amounts of video data (including CCTV) are captured every day. The Analysis Bureau Imagery employs advanced video facilities that can assist to dramatically improve the quality of recorded video imagery, from which salient still images may be produced for further, more detailed analysis.

    We are able to advise with respect to the quality of CCTV evidence, particularly in the ability to provide identification evidence.

    We are able to assess the suitability of still and video images for facial mapping, clothing and body comparison.

    Video forensics

    More and more immense amounts of video data is being captured around the world each day.   This video data is growing exponentially in importance as evidence.  Video forensics services such as those provided by The Analysis Bureau Imagery are core to the expert analysis and interpretation of this imagery.

    Video forensics services include:

    *  Still image and video enhancement

    *  Enhanced quality still prints from video

    *  Video editing [where permissible]

    *  Enhancement of time-lapse CCTV footage

    * Assessment of faulty or tampered with still images or video recordings

    *  De-multiplexing of CCTV

    * Highlighting of subjects or objects

    *  Expert opinion on video content

    *  Consultation with respect to any evidential benefit of imagery evidence

    *  Application of subtitles

    *  Vehicle speed estimations

    *  Consideration of tampered with or edited video tapes

    *  Digital format conversion

    CCTV Imagery

    The ability to catch criminals from CCTV footage on the way - By Daily Mail Reporter

    Merseyside police Chief Constable Bernard Hogan-Howe

    Merseyside police Chief Constable Bernard Hogan-Howe: His force is piloting 'facial mapping' schemes

    Police are within months of setting up the country's first system that recognises suspected criminals and terrorists from CCTV footage.

    The 'facial mapping' scheme will enable officers to identify wanted criminals within minutes of being caught on tape.

    It will compare photos from a digital mugshot database with film and stills from a crime scene and come up with around ten of the closest matches.

    To build up its mugshot database, Merseyside Police – which is running the pilot scheme along with Lancashire Police and West Yorkshire Police – is taking digital photographs of 70,000 suspects arrested in Liverpool every year.

    These include those accused of minor crimes such as motoring offences and the images will be retained even if they are not charged with any offence.

    The chief constable of Merseyside Police, Bernard Hogan-Howe, told the magazine New Statesman: 'In future we could scan images of shoplifters and motorists who drive off from petrol stations without paying.

    'Another example would be someone who is photographed committing an assault outside a nightclub.'

    He said the system could be up and running 'later this year'. 

    © By Daily Mail Reporter

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    Facial mapping, body comparison, image analysis, CCTV interpretation, video enhancement, expert comment - the role of an Expert Witness

    For further details, please see:  METHODOLOGY  and / or  CONTACT US

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